Roman Numerals 1-1000

Roman Numerals 1-1000

1=I
2=II
3=III
4=IV=IIII
5=V
6=VI
7=VII
8=VIII=IIX
9=IX=VIIII
10=X
11=XI
12=XII
13=XIII
14=XIV
15=XV
16=XVI
17=XVII
18=XVIII
19=XIX
20=XX
21=XXI
22=XXII
23=XXIII
24=XXIV
25=XXV
26=XXVI
27=XXVII
28=XXVIII
29=XXIX
30=XXX
31=XXXI
32=XXXII
33=XXXIII
34=XXXIV
35=XXXV
36=XXXVI
37=XXXVII
38=XXXVIII
39=XXXIX
40=XL
41=XLI
42=XLII
43=XLIII
44=XLIV
45=XLV
46=XLVI
47=XLVII
48=XLVIII
49=XLIX
50=L
51=LI
52=LII
53=LIII
54=LIV
55=LV
56=LVI
57=LVII
58=LVIII
59=LIX
60=LX
61=LXI
62=LXII
63=LXIII
64=LXIV
65=LXV
66=LXVI
67=LXVII
68=LXVIII
69=LXIX
70=LXX
71=LXXI
72=LXXII
73=LXXIII
74=LXXIV
75=LXXV
76=LXXVI
77=LXXVII
78=LXXVIII
79=LXXIX
80=LXXX
81=LXXXI
82=LXXXII
83=LXXXIII
84=LXXXIV
85=LXXXV
86=LXXXVI
87=LXXXVII
88=LXXXVIII
89=LXXXIX
90=XC
91=XCI
92=XCII
93=XCIII
94=XCIV
95=XCV
96=XCVI
97=XCVII
98=XCVIII
99=XCIX
100=C
101=CI
102=CII
103=CIII
104=CIV
105=CV
106=CVI
107=CVII
108=CVIII
109=CIX
110=CX
111=CXI
112=CXII
113=CXIII
114=CXIV
115=CXV
116=CXVI
117=CXVII
118=CXVIII
119=CXIX
120=CXX
121=CXXI
122=CXXII
123=CXXIII
124=CXXIV
125=CXXV
126=CXXVI
127=CXXVII
128=CXXVIII
129=CXXIX
130=CXXX
131=CXXXI
132=CXXXII
133=CXXXIII
134=CXXXIV
135=CXXXV
136=CXXXVI
137=CXXXVII
138=CXXXVIII
139=CXXXIX
140=CXL
141=CXLI
142=CXLII
143=CXLIII
144=CXLIV
145=CXLV
146=CXLVI
147=CXLVII
148=CXLVIII
149=CXLIX
150=CL
151=CLI
152=CLII
153=CLIII
154=CLIV
155=CLV
156=CLVI
157=CLVII
158=CLVIII
159=CLIX
160=CLX
161=CLXI
162=CLXII
163=CLXIII
164=CLXIV
165=CLXV
166=CLXVI
167=CLXVII
168=CLXVIII
169=CLXIX
170=CLXX
171=CLXXI
172=CLXXII
173=CLXXIII
174=CLXXIV
175=CLXXV
176=CLXXVI
177=CLXXVII
178=CLXXVIII
179=CLXXIX
180=CLXXX
181=CLXXXI
182=CLXXXII
183=CLXXXIII
184=CLXXXIV
185=CLXXXV
186=CLXXXVI
187=CLXXXVII
188=CLXXXVIII
189=CLXXXIX
190=CXC
191=CXCI
192=CXCII
193=CXCIII
194=CXCIV
195=CXCV
196=CXCVI
197=CXCVII
198=CXCVIII
199=CXCIX
200=CC
201=CCI
202=CCII
203=CCIII
204=CCIV
205=CCV
206=CCVI
207=CCVII
208=CCVIII
209=CCIX
210=CCX
211=CCXI
212=CCXII
213=CCXIII
214=CCXIV
215=CCXV
216=CCXVI
217=CCXVII
218=CCXVIII
219=CCXIX
220=CCXX
221=CCXXI
222=CCXXII
223=CCXXIII
224=CCXXIV
225=CCXXV
226=CCXXVI
227=CCXXVII
228=CCXXVIII
229=CCXXIX
230=CCXXX
231=CCXXXI
232=CCXXXII
233=CCXXXIII
234=CCXXXIV
235=CCXXXV
236=CCXXXVI
237=CCXXXVII
238=CCXXXVIII
239=CCXXXIX
240=CCXL
241=CCXLI
242=CCXLII
243=CCXLIII
244=CCXLIV
245=CCXLV
246=CCXLVI
247=CCXLVII
248=CCXLVIII
249=CCXLIX
250=CCL
251=CCLI
252=CCLII
253=CCLIII
254=CCLIV
255=CCLV
256=CCLVI
257=CCLVII
258=CCLVIII
259=CCLIX
260=CCLX
261=CCLXI
262=CCLXII
263=CCLXIII
264=CCLXIV
265=CCLXV
266=CCLXVI
267=CCLXVII
268=CCLXVIII
269=CCLXIX
270=CCLXX
271=CCLXXI
272=CCLXXII
273=CCLXXIII
274=CCLXXIV
275=CCLXXV
276=CCLXXVI
277=CCLXXVII
278=CCLXXVIII
279=CCLXXIX
280=CCLXXX
281=CCLXXXI
282=CCLXXXII
283=CCLXXXIII
284=CCLXXXIV
285=CCLXXXV
286=CCLXXXVI
287=CCLXXXVII
288=CCLXXXVIII
289=CCLXXXIX
290=CCXC
291=CCXCI
292=CCXCII
293=CCXCIII
294=CCXCIV
295=CCXCV
296=CCXCVI
297=CCXCVII
298=CCXCVIII
299=CCXCIX
300=CCC
301=CCCI
302=CCCII
303=CCCIII
304=CCCIV
305=CCCV
306=CCCVI
307=CCCVII
308=CCCVIII
309=CCCIX
310=CCCX
311=CCCXI
312=CCCXII
313=CCCXIII
314=CCCXIV
315=CCCXV
316=CCCXVI
317=CCCXVII
318=CCCXVIII
319=CCCXIX
320=CCCXX
321=CCCXXI
322=CCCXXII
323=CCCXXIII
324=CCCXXIV
325=CCCXXV
326=CCCXXVI
327=CCCXXVII
328=CCCXXVIII
329=CCCXXIX
330=CCCXXX
331=CCCXXXI
332=CCCXXXII
333=CCCXXXIII
334=CCCXXXIV
335=CCCXXXV
336=CCCXXXVI
337=CCCXXXVII
338=CCCXXXVIII
339=CCCXXXIX
340=CCCXL
341=CCCXLI
342=CCCXLII
343=CCCXLIII
344=CCCXLIV
345=CCCXLV
346=CCCXLVI
347=CCCXLVII
348=CCCXLVIII
349=CCCXLIX
350=CCCL
351=CCCLI
352=CCCLII
353=CCCLIII
354=CCCLIV
355=CCCLV
356=CCCLVI
357=CCCLVII
358=CCCLVIII
359=CCCLIX
360=CCCLX
361=CCCLXI
362=CCCLXII
363=CCCLXIII
364=CCCLXIV
365=CCCLXV
366=CCCLXVI
367=CCCLXVII
368=CCCLXVIII
369=CCCLXIX
370=CCCLXX
371=CCCLXXI
372=CCCLXXII
373=CCCLXXIII
374=CCCLXXIV
375=CCCLXXV
376=CCCLXXVI
377=CCCLXXVII
378=CCCLXXVIII
379=CCCLXXIX
380=CCCLXXX
381=CCCLXXXI
382=CCCLXXXII
383=CCCLXXXIII
384=CCCLXXXIV
385=CCCLXXXV
386=CCCLXXXVI
387=CCCLXXXVII
388=CCCLXXXVIII
389=CCCLXXXIX
390=CCCXC
391=CCCXCI
392=CCCXCII
393=CCCXCIII
394=CCCXCIV
395=CCCXCV
396=CCCXCVI
397=CCCXCVII
398=CCCXCVIII
399=CCCXCIX
400=CD
401=CDI
402=CDII
403=CDIII
404=CDIV
405=CDV
406=CDVI
407=CDVII
408=CDVIII
409=CDIX
410=CDX
411=CDXI
412=CDXII
413=CDXIII
414=CDXIV
415=CDXV
416=CDXVI
417=CDXVII
418=CDXVIII
419=CDXIX
420=CDXX
421=CDXXI
422=CDXXII
423=CDXXIII
424=CDXXIV
425=CDXXV
426=CDXXVI
427=CDXXVII
428=CDXXVIII
429=CDXXIX
430=CDXXX
431=CDXXXI
432=CDXXXII
433=CDXXXIII
434=CDXXXIV
435=CDXXXV
436=CDXXXVI
437=CDXXXVII
438=CDXXXVIII
439=CDXXXIX
440=CDXL
441=CDXLI
442=CDXLII
443=CDXLIII
444=CDXLIV
445=CDXLV
446=CDXLVI
447=CDXLVII
448=CDXLVIII
449=CDXLIX
450=CDL
451=CDLI
452=CDLII
453=CDLIII
454=CDLIV
455=CDLV
456=CDLVI
457=CDLVII
458=CDLVIII
459=CDLIX
460=CDLX
461=CDLXI
462=CDLXII
463=CDLXIII
464=CDLXIV
465=CDLXV
466=CDLXVI
467=CDLXVII
468=CDLXVIII
469=CDLXIX
470=CDLXX
471=CDLXXI
472=CDLXXII
473=CDLXXIII
474=CDLXXIV
475=CDLXXV
476=CDLXXVI
477=CDLXXVII
478=CDLXXVIII
479=CDLXXIX
480=CDLXXX
481=CDLXXXI
482=CDLXXXII
483=CDLXXXIII
484=CDLXXXIV
485=CDLXXXV
486=CDLXXXVI
487=CDLXXXVII
488=CDLXXXVIII
489=CDLXXXIX
490=CDXC
491=CDXCI
492=CDXCII
493=CDXCIII
494=CDXCIV
495=CDXCV
496=CDXCVI
497=CDXCVII
498=CDXCVIII
499=CDXCIX
500=D=IƆ
501=DI
502=DII
503=DIII
504=DIV
505=DV
506=DVI
507=DVII
508=DVIII
509=DIX
510=DX
511=DXI
512=DXII
513=DXIII
514=DXIV
515=DXV
516=DXVI
517=DXVII
518=DXVIII
519=DXIX
520=DXX
521=DXXI
522=DXXII
523=DXXIII
524=DXXIV
525=DXXV
526=DXXVI
527=DXXVII
528=DXXVIII
529=DXXIX
530=DXXX
531=DXXXI
532=DXXXII
533=DXXXIII
534=DXXXIV
535=DXXXV
536=DXXXVI
537=DXXXVII
538=DXXXVIII
539=DXXXIX
540=DXL
541=DXLI
542=DXLII
543=DXLIII
544=DXLIV
545=DXLV
546=DXLVI
547=DXLVII
548=DXLVIII
549=DXLIX
550=DL
551=DLI
552=DLII
553=DLIII
554=DLIV
555=DLV
556=DLVI
557=DLVII
558=DLVIII
559=DLIX
560=DLX
561=DLXI
562=DLXII
563=DLXIII
564=DLXIV
565=DLXV
566=DLXVI
567=DLXVII
568=DLXVIII
569=DLXIX
570=DLXX
571=DLXXI
572=DLXXII
573=DLXXIII
574=DLXXIV
575=DLXXV
576=DLXXVI
577=DLXXVII
578=DLXXVIII
579=DLXXIX
580=DLXXX
581=DLXXXI
582=DLXXXII
583=DLXXXIII
584=DLXXXIV
585=DLXXXV
586=DLXXXVI
587=DLXXXVII
588=DLXXXVIII
589=DLXXXIX
590=DXC
591=DXCI
592=DXCII
593=DXCIII
594=DXCIV
595=DXCV
596=DXCVI
597=DXCVII
598=DXCVIII
599=DXCIX
600=DC
601=DCI
602=DCII
603=DCIII
604=DCIV
605=DCV
606=DCVI
607=DCVII
608=DCVIII
609=DCIX
610=DCX
611=DCXI
612=DCXII
613=DCXIII
614=DCXIV
615=DCXV
616=DCXVI
617=DCXVII
618=DCXVIII
619=DCXIX
620=DCXX
621=DCXXI
622=DCXXII
623=DCXXIII
624=DCXXIV
625=DCXXV
626=DCXXVI
627=DCXXVII
628=DCXXVIII
629=DCXXIX
630=DCXXX
631=DCXXXI
632=DCXXXII
633=DCXXXIII
634=DCXXXIV
635=DCXXXV
636=DCXXXVI
637=DCXXXVII
638=DCXXXVIII
639=DCXXXIX
640=DCXL
641=DCXLI
642=DCXLII
643=DCXLIII
644=DCXLIV
645=DCXLV
646=DCXLVI
647=DCXLVII
648=DCXLVIII
649=DCXLIX
650=DCL
651=DCLI
652=DCLII
653=DCLIII
654=DCLIV
655=DCLV
656=DCLVI
657=DCLVII
658=DCLVIII
659=DCLIX
660=DCLX
661=DCLXI
662=DCLXII
663=DCLXIII
664=DCLXIV
665=DCLXV
666=DCLXVI
667=DCLXVII
668=DCLXVIII
669=DCLXIX
670=DCLXX
671=DCLXXI
672=DCLXXII
673=DCLXXIII
674=DCLXXIV
675=DCLXXV
676=DCLXXVI
677=DCLXXVII
678=DCLXXVIII
679=DCLXXIX
680=DCLXXX
681=DCLXXXI
682=DCLXXXII
683=DCLXXXIII
684=DCLXXXIV
685=DCLXXXV
686=DCLXXXVI
687=DCLXXXVII
688=DCLXXXVIII
689=DCLXXXIX
690=DCXC
691=DCXCI
692=DCXCII
693=DCXCIII
694=DCXCIV
695=DCXCV
696=DCXCVI
697=DCXCVII
698=DCXCVIII
699=DCXCIX
700=DCC
701=DCCI
702=DCCII
703=DCCIII
704=DCCIV
705=DCCV
706=DCCVI
707=DCCVII
708=DCCVIII
709=DCCIX
710=DCCX
711=DCCXI
712=DCCXII
713=DCCXIII
714=DCCXIV
715=DCCXV
716=DCCXVI
717=DCCXVII
718=DCCXVIII
719=DCCXIX
720=DCCXX
721=DCCXXI
722=DCCXXII
723=DCCXXIII
724=DCCXXIV
725=DCCXXV
726=DCCXXVI
727=DCCXXVII
728=DCCXXVIII
729=DCCXXIX
730=DCCXXX
731=DCCXXXI
732=DCCXXXII
733=DCCXXXIII
734=DCCXXXIV
735=DCCXXXV
736=DCCXXXVI
737=DCCXXXVII
738=DCCXXXVIII
739=DCCXXXIX
740=DCCXL
741=DCCXLI
742=DCCXLII
743=DCCXLIII
744=DCCXLIV
745=DCCXLV
746=DCCXLVI
747=DCCXLVII
748=DCCXLVIII
749=DCCXLIX
750=DCCL
751=DCCLI
752=DCCLII
753=DCCLIII
754=DCCLIV
755=DCCLV
756=DCCLVI
757=DCCLVII
758=DCCLVIII
759=DCCLIX
760=DCCLX
761=DCCLXI
762=DCCLXII
763=DCCLXIII
764=DCCLXIV
765=DCCLXV
766=DCCLXVI
767=DCCLXVII
768=DCCLXVIII
769=DCCLXIX
770=DCCLXX
771=DCCLXXI
772=DCCLXXII
773=DCCLXXIII
774=DCCLXXIV
775=DCCLXXV
776=DCCLXXVI
777=DCCLXXVII
778=DCCLXXVIII
779=DCCLXXIX
780=DCCLXXX
781=DCCLXXXI
782=DCCLXXXII
783=DCCLXXXIII
784=DCCLXXXIV
785=DCCLXXXV
786=DCCLXXXVI
787=DCCLXXXVII
788=DCCLXXXVIII
789=DCCLXXXIX
790=DCCXC
791=DCCXCI
792=DCCXCII
793=DCCXCIII
794=DCCXCIV
795=DCCXCV
796=DCCXCVI
797=DCCXCVII
798=DCCXCVIII
799=DCCXCIX
800=DCCC
801=DCCCI
802=DCCCII
803=DCCCIII
804=DCCCIV
805=DCCCV
806=DCCCVI
807=DCCCVII
808=DCCCVIII
809=DCCCIX
810=DCCCX
811=DCCCXI
812=DCCCXII
813=DCCCXIII
814=DCCCXIV
815=DCCCXV
816=DCCCXVI
817=DCCCXVII
818=DCCCXVIII
819=DCCCXIX
820=DCCCXX
821=DCCCXXI
822=DCCCXXII
823=DCCCXXIII
824=DCCCXXIV
825=DCCCXXV
826=DCCCXXVI
827=DCCCXXVII
828=DCCCXXVIII
829=DCCCXXIX
830=DCCCXXX
831=DCCCXXXI
832=DCCCXXXII
833=DCCCXXXIII
834=DCCCXXXIV
835=DCCCXXXV
836=DCCCXXXVI
837=DCCCXXXVII
838=DCCCXXXVIII
839=DCCCXXXIX
840=DCCCXL
841=DCCCXLI
842=DCCCXLII
843=DCCCXLIII
844=DCCCXLIV
845=DCCCXLV
846=DCCCXLVI
847=DCCCXLVII
848=DCCCXLVIII
849=DCCCXLIX
850=DCCCL
851=DCCCLI
852=DCCCLII
853=DCCCLIII
854=DCCCLIV
855=DCCCLV
856=DCCCLVI
857=DCCCLVII
858=DCCCLVIII
859=DCCCLIX
860=DCCCLX
861=DCCCLXI
862=DCCCLXII
863=DCCCLXIII
864=DCCCLXIV
865=DCCCLXV
866=DCCCLXVI
867=DCCCLXVII
868=DCCCLXVIII
869=DCCCLXIX
870=DCCCLXX
871=DCCCLXXI
872=DCCCLXXII
873=DCCCLXXIII
874=DCCCLXXIV
875=DCCCLXXV
876=DCCCLXXVI
877=DCCCLXXVII
878=DCCCLXXVIII
879=DCCCLXXIX
880=DCCCLXXX
881=DCCCLXXXI
882=DCCCLXXXII
883=DCCCLXXXIII
884=DCCCLXXXIV
885=DCCCLXXXV
886=DCCCLXXXVI
887=DCCCLXXXVII
888=DCCCLXXXVIII
889=DCCCLXXXIX
890=DCCCXC
891=DCCCXCI
892=DCCCXCII
893=DCCCXCIII
894=DCCCXCIV
895=DCCCXCV
896=DCCCXCVI
897=DCCCXCVII
898=DCCCXCVIII
899=DCCCXCIX
900=CM
901=CMI
902=CMII
903=CMIII
904=CMIV
905=CMV
906=CMVI
907=CMVII
908=CMVIII
909=CMIX
910=CMX
911=CMXI
912=CMXII
913=CMXIII
914=CMXIV
915=CMXV
916=CMXVI
917=CMXVII
918=CMXVIII
919=CMXIX
920=CMXX
921=CMXXI
922=CMXXII
923=CMXXIII
924=CMXXIV
925=CMXXV
926=CMXXVI
927=CMXXVII
928=CMXXVIII
929=CMXXIX
930=CMXXX
931=CMXXXI
932=CMXXXII
933=CMXXXIII
934=CMXXXIV
935=CMXXXV
936=CMXXXVI
937=CMXXXVII
938=CMXXXVIII
939=CMXXXIX
940=CMXL
941=CMXLI
942=CMXLII
943=CMXLIII
944=CMXLIV
945=CMXLV
946=CMXLVI
947=CMXLVII
948=CMXLVIII
949=CMXLIX
950=CML
951=CMLI
952=CMLII
953=CMLIII
954=CMLIV
955=CMLV
956=CMLVI
957=CMLVII
958=CMLVIII
959=CMLIX
960=CMLX
961=CMLXI
962=CMLXII
963=CMLXIII
964=CMLXIV
965=CMLXV
966=CMLXVI
967=CMLXVII
968=CMLXVIII
969=CMLXIX
970=CMLXX
971=CMLXXI
972=CMLXXII
973=CMLXXIII
974=CMLXXIV
975=CMLXXV
976=CMLXXVI
977=CMLXXVII
978=CMLXXVIII
979=CMLXXIX
980=CMLXXX
981=CMLXXXI
982=CMLXXXII
983=CMLXXXIII
984=CMLXXXIV
985=CMLXXXV
986=CMLXXXVI
987=CMLXXXVII
988=CMLXXXVIII
989=CMLXXXIX
990=CMXC
991=CMXCI
992=CMXCII
993=CMXCIII
994=CMXCIV
995=CMXCV
996=CMXCVI
997=CMXCVII
998=CMXCVIII
999=CMXCIX
1000=M=CIƆ=ↀ

~0~

What time in USA is What time in INDIA?

In the following chart, Eastern Standard Time (EST) is compared with Indian Standard Time (IST).

USA_INDIA_TimeChartThis chart is fine as long as Daylight Saving Time (DST) is not observed. DST or summer time is the practice of advancing clocks during the summer months that have more daylight, so that people get up earlier in the morning and experience more daylight in the evening. Typically clocks are adjusted forward one hour near the start of spring and are adjusted backward in the autumn.

Many cities in USA calculate time as per DST. For example, when it is 8:30 p.m. (IST) in New Delhi, India, it is 11:00 a.m. (DST) in New York, USA. If you go by the above chart then it is 10:00 a.m. (EST) in New York. So, if your chosen city observes DST, then the above chart is about one hour late. However, remembering which cities observe DST is not practical and thus, help from online resources is needed. To compare the time in any two or more cities, anywhere in the world, one site is the time zone converter of world clocks at: http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/converter.html .  Here you can add about 10 cities to compare. They show the exact time & date, and take care of the UTC/GMT, EST, DST, and other technicalities. There are many other sites also that show world clocks. Some even offer free software that you can download and customize it as per your choice. But if your chosen city does not observe DST, then the above chart should work fine.

~0~

Surface Web & Deep Web Databases / Search Engines

For effective writing, one has to do extensive research. Physical books and journals are always very valuable peer-reviewed sources. But the internet should also be researched. The internet may be considered as the surface internet/web and the deep internet/web. Standard search engines search only the surface web. However, the deep web/ hidden web/ invisible internet is more than 500 times larger than the surface web. For comprehensive online research, the resources available on both the surface web and the deep web, should be referenced.

Following is a short list of surface web and deep web databases/search engines. They are listed alphabetically.

Surface Web Databases / Search Engines

All Search Engines. http://www.allsearchengines.com/
AOL. http://www.aol.com/
Ask. http://www.ask.com/
Beaucoup! http://www.beaucoup.com/
Bing. http://www.bing.com/
Collegenet. http://www.collegenet.com/
Colossus. http://www.colossus.com/
Crawler. http://www.crawler.com/
Dogpile. http://www.dogpile.com/
Freeality. http://www.freeality.com/
Gigablast. http://www.gigablast.com/
Google. http://www.google.com/
Lookoff. http://www.lookoff.com/
Looksmart. http://www.looksmart.com/
Lycos. http://www.lycos.com/
Mamma. https://mamma.com/
Search.  http://www.search.com/search
Virtual Sites. http://www.virtualfreesites.com/
WebSearch. http://www.websearch.com/
Wisenut. http://www.wisenut.com/
Xrefer. http://www.xrefer.com/
Yahoo! http://search.yahoo.com/
Zoo. http://www.zoo.com/

Deep Web Databases / Search Engines

Combined Health Information Database. http://pathmicro.med.sc.edu/chidmic.htm
CompletePlanet.com. http://aip.completeplanet.com/
Directory of Open Access Journals. http://www.doaj.org/
EBSCOhost. http://www.ebscohost.com/
Guidestar Directory of Charities and Nonprofit Organizations. http://www.guidestar.org/NonprofitDirectory.aspx
Healthfinder. http://www.healthfinder.gov/
Human Genome Database. http://web.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/research/databases.shtml
InfoMine. http:infomine.ucr.edu/
Internet Sacred Text Archive. http://www.sacred-texts.com/
Plants Database. http://plants.usda.gov/
ProQuest. http://proquest.com/
PsycNet. http://psycnet.apa.org/
RXList. http://www.rxlist.com/script/main/hp.asp
Scirus. http://www.scirus.com/
TechXtra. http://www.techxtra.ac.uk/
UCLA Library. http://www.library.ucla.edu/search/databases
University of Michigan Stephen S. Clark Library. http://www.lib.umich.edu/clark-library
USA.gov. http://www.usa.gov/index.shtml
Virtual Library. http://vlib.org/
Voice of the Shuttle. http://vos.ucsb.edu/
Wikipedia. http://www.wikipedia.org/
Worldcat. http://www.oclc.org/worldcat.en.html

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Ghostwriting Agreement Sample

[DISCLAIMER: The Ghostwriting Agreement as given below is just a sample and is NOT a legal document. You must consult your lawyer to formulate your own agreement. Persons using the below do so at their own risk(s).]

GHOSTWRITING AGREEMENT

 AGREEMENT BETWEEN

NAME [CLIENT], HEREAFTER REFERRED TO AS “AUTHOR”

AND

NAME [WRITER], HEREAFTER REFERRED TO AS “GHOSTWRITER”

This Ghostwriting Agreement (“Agreement”) is entered into on this ________ day of month, year, at place, country, by the AUTHOR; and on this ________ day of month, year, at place, country, by the GHOSTWRITER; and both parties do hereby agree to all the described and given below:

1. GOAL:

1.1 The AUTHOR is entrusting the GHOSTWRITER to ghostwrite, edit, and format, a nonfictional/fictional account of the AUTHOR’s experiences as an autobiographical memoir/fictional story (hereafter referred as “manuscript”) of a total of 00,0000–000,0000 words.

1.2 The AUTHOR may subsequently publish the manuscript via any traditional publisher. To aid the efforts of the AUTHOR in getting the book published, the GHOSTWRITER will write the book in a single Word file suitable for publishing. Additionally, the GHOSTWRITER will draft a ‘Book Proposal’ containing (i) a forwarding letter stating why the AUTHOR is the best person to write the book and why the book will interest a publisher; (ii) a one-page synopsis of the book; and (iii) the first ten pages of the manuscript shall be attached.

1.4 The AUTHOR may self-publish the book as a paperback or as an e-book. In the event the AUTHOR self-publishes the manuscript, the GHOSTWRITER will guide the AUTHOR on the self-publishing platforms by formatting the manuscript as per the requirements of the publisher and may convert the manuscript suitable for ebook publication.

2. METHOD:

2.1 All communications between the AUTHOR and the GHOSTWRITER shall take place via personal meetings/phone/internet/email/ or other mutually agreed ways.

2.3 All payments shall be effected via agreed payment method as detailed in Section 9.

2.4. Both parties agree that in the rare occurrence of any dispute, it shall be resolved as given in Section 11.

3. COST:

Both the Parties agree that the AUTHOR shall pay the GHOSTWRITER for writing, editing, and formatting a manuscript of a total of 00,0000–000,0000 words, at a total cost of amount in words (amount in figures), payable as given in Section 9.

4. MANUSCRIPT:

4.1 The manuscript will be written and delivered in a Word document in a 6” x 9” book size or the size specified by the AUTHOR, with Garamond 11pt font, single spaced or as per the specifications provided by the AUTHOR. It shall follow all the formatting requirements so that it may be published as a paperback and/or ebook. The fully formatted manuscript, edited and proofread, shall be considered as a finished manuscript that may be given as an internal file to any book publisher for printing.

4.2 The content of the manuscript shall be based on the material (hereafter referred as “material”) as provided by the AUTHOR to the GHOSTWRITER.

4.3 Materials may consist of personal notes/ diaries/ audio or video tapes/ medical and/or legal documents, scanned or otherwise. For any and all materials provided by the AUTHOR, the AUTHOR is wholly and solely responsible in obtaining the respective publication permissions/ consents/ approvals,, etc. from the respective individuals/institutions/organizations/companies. The GHOSTWRITER shall not obtain any permissions/consents/approvals, etc., and shall accept all materials provided by the AUTHOR, on good faith and complete trust, without any questions/verification/modification of the provided material.

4.4 The AUTHOR shall provide to the GHOSTWRITER, all materials necessary for the writing of the manuscript at the earliest, so that the GHOSTWRITER may study them in its entirety.

4.5 The manuscript will be written in first person/second person/third person active or passive voice, as required by the AUTHOR. Words like “I”, “Me”, “Myself”, and likewise words, wherever applicable, may be used if the AUTHOR requires. Real names of living and/or deceased individuals, along with real names of institutions/entities/organizations/companies, private and/or government, may be used, if the AUTHOR requires. For the usage of all names, addresses, and other personal details of real and/or fictional characters, the AUTHOR is wholly and fully responsible.

4.6 The manuscript shall have a working title as “Some working title” and this title may be changed later by the AUTHOR, with or without the consultation of the GHOSTWRITER.

4.7 The page outline of the manuscript may be as given below, which is an academic format given as an example. Any item(s) may be selected/deleted to create the format as required by the AUTHOR.

half title i
series ii
full title iii
copyright iv
dedication v
blank vi
table of contents vii
blank viii
list of illustrations ix
blank x
list of tables xi
blank xii
foreword xiii
blank xiv
preface xv
blank xvi
acknowledgments xvii
blank xviii
list of abbreviations xix
blank xx
introduction/chapter one 1
[…]
appendix(es) (odd page#)
notes (if at the end of book) (odd page#)
glossary (odd page#)
bibliography (odd page#)
list of contributors (odd page#)
index(es) (odd page#)

a) The illustrations contain the scanned images of documents/ drawings, wherever necessary. They are enumerated by words “Fig.# or Figure#”, at the bottom of the illustration.
b) The tables contain data given in a tabulated form, wherever necessary. They are enumerated by words “Table#”, at the top of the table.
c) The appendix(es) contains all the scanned documents/ drawings/ other documents, supporting the content of the manuscript.
d) The glossary contains the important terms used in the book, along with their respective definitions.
e) The bibliography contains the references in APA/MLA/Turabian/Chicago style.
f) The index contains all the important words, phrases, and proper nouns, along with the page numbers where they appear in the book. Cross-referencing a word/name/concept in several chapters by using the words “See also” under specific index entries, may also be done.

4.8 The manuscript shall consist of a total of 00,0000–000,0000 words, inclusive of the front matter, chapters, appendix(es), glossary, bibliography, etc.

4.9 For nonfiction, no third party material shall be used by the GHOSTWRITER, as she/he will write the manuscript based wholly on the material provided by the AUTHOR. For fiction, the GHOSTWRITER assumes full responsibility that any third party material used has been done so after taking due permissions/consents from the respective third parties.

4.10. For book publication, publishers usually need two files, namely, interior file and cover file. The finished manuscript is the interior file. The cover file is a full color graphics file, which is usually created by some graphic artist. The GHOSTWRITER shall provide the completed manuscript, which is the interior file. The GHOSTWRITER will not provide the cover file. The GHOSTWRITER may employ some cover designer to design the cover file, with the approval of the AUTHOR.

5. OWNERSHIP/COPYRIGHT/ROYALTY RIGHTS:

5.1 Both the Parties agree that all ownership, copyright, and royalty rights, title and interest and all intellectual property rights in the manuscript and its all or any subsequent physical or electronic formats, now or ever in future, shall be the sole and exclusive property of the AUTHOR, including:

(i) All materials, including but not limited to Word files, PowerPoint Presentations, tapes, and completed manuscript, the completed Book and/or other product resulting from the manuscript;

(ii) All materials forming the content of the subject matter of the manuscript or its any other physical or electronic format, provided by AUTHOR;

(iii) Any ideas, works, documentation or notes conceived related to the manuscript;

(iv) All writings related to or associated with the manuscript; and

(v) All AUTHOR’S work/ product related to the manuscript.

5.2 To the extent that ownership of the items stated above does not automatically vest in the AUTHOR, the GHOSTWRITER hereby agrees to grant to the AUTHOR an exclusive, irrevocable, royalty free license to use, copy and modify any elements of the manuscript specifically created for the AUTHOR as part of the services for ghostwriting the manuscript. The GHOSTWRITER assigns the full title rights to the AUTHOR, who may change the title anytime, and any and all of the copyrights, other intellectual property rights, and any other data or material used or subsisting in the manuscript, whether finished or unfinished.

6. CREDIT

6.1 Credit for the Work will be in the name of the AUTHOR, and designees, and will be the only credit on the manuscript in any physical or electronic format, now or ever in future.

6.2 The GHOSTWRITER shall have absolutely NO Credit for the Work, whatsoever in any form or way. The name of the GHOSTWRITER and designees shall not come anywhere in the manuscript or in any physical or electronic format, now or ever in future.

7. CONFIDENTIALITY:

The GHOSTWRITER acknowledges and agrees that all information provided by AUTHOR related to the manuscript, including without limitation, its materials, content, writings, work product, audio tapes or files, notes and diagrams, is of great value to AUTHOR and represents his/her life work. Accordingly, GHOSTWRITER agrees not to divulge to anyone, either during, or after the term of this Agreement, any Confidential Information obtained or developed by AUTHOR while working on the manuscript. Upon the conclusion or expiration of this Agreement, GHOSTWRITER agrees to make no further use or utilization of any Confidential Information provided to him by AUTHOR; and additionally, the GHOSTWRITER agrees to delete and destroy all files and materials, physical, electronic or otherwise, pertaining to the manuscript, to prevent any accidental usage, now or ever in future. Upon successful completion of the Agreement, the GHOSTWRITER, now or ever in the future shall not keep any records, whatsoever, pertaining to this manuscript.

8. RELATIONSHIP:

Both the Parties acknowledge and agree that the GHOSTWRITER will perform the services as an independent contractor. The GHOSTWRITER agrees that s/he is solely responsible for the payment of all taxes associated with fees associated with the writing of the manuscript. Nothing contained in this Agreement shall be deemed to constitute either party a partner, joint venturer or employee of the other party for any purpose.

9. PAYMENT:

The total payment of amount in words (amount in figures) shall be done as follows:

a) 60% advance
b) 40% upon completion of the manuscript.

Payment shall be made by Cash/Check/Bank Transfer/any other mutually agreed method.

10. DISPUTE

Both parties agree that in the rare occasion of a dispute, they will resort to the –give contact details like name, address, phone of the mutually agreed dispute resolution authority–, whose decision shall be final and binding on both the parties.

11. PUBLISHING/MARKETING. The AUTHOR shall undertake all activities for publishing the manuscript including submissions to publishers, marketing, distribution, selling and publicity. The AUTHOR will own the manuscript including but not limited to its subsequent publication as a hardcover, paperback, ebook, audio book, movie, DVD, or any other physical or electronic format, including any publishing rights worldwide, copyrights, sale, marketing, distribution, royalty, and any other rights.

12. WARRANTY:

12.1 The GHOSTWRITER represents and warrants that he/she will perform the services associated with writing of the manuscript with reasonable care and skill; and the services and the manuscript provided by GHOSTWRITER to AUTHOR under this Agreement will not infringe or violate any intellectual property rights or any other right of any third party.

12.2 For nonfiction, the manuscript will be written based solely and wholly on the materials provided only by the AUTHOR. The AUTHOR represents and warrants that he/she has obtained all the necessary permissions/sanctions/consents/approvals for all the scanned or otherwise materials, medical, legal, or otherwise, prior to providing it to the GHOSTWRITER, so that it does not infringe or violate any intellectual property rights or any other right of any third party or parties.

13. SEVERABILITY:

In case of any dispute, if the mutually agreed dispute resolution authority as given in Section 10, finds any provision of this Agreement invalid or unenforceable, the remainder of this Agreement shall be interpreted so as best to effect the intent of the parties.

14. INTEGRATION:

14.1 This Agreement constitutes the entire understanding between the Parties relating to the writing of the manuscript and supersedes all prior proposals, agreements, representations, writings, negotiations or understandings with respect hereto.

14.2 This Agreement may not be amended for any reason without the prior written consent of and signed by both Parties.

15. WAIVER:

The failure to exercise any right provided in this Agreement shall not be a waiver of prior or subsequent rights.

16. TERMINATION:

This Agreement may be terminated prematurely, for any reason, provided that at least – mention number of days- advance written notice of termination along with termination fee of -amount in words (amount in figures)- is given to the non-terminating party.

17. MISCELLANEOUS:

Both AUTHOR and GHOSTWRITER agree to set aside adequate time to discuss the manuscript, including constructive criticism, feedback and/or concerns or questions that directly relate to the manuscript.

Signed, sealed and delivered by both parties as follows:

(Signature)

Name [Author]:

Address:

Phone number:

Date:

Place:

(Signature)

Name [Ghostwriter]:

Address:

Phone number:

Date:

Place:

in the presences of the following witnesses

(Signature)

Name [Witness 1]:

Address:

Phone number:

Date:

Place:

(Signature)

Name [Witness 2]:

Address:

Phone number:

Date:

Place:

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Reading Digital Comics

Digital comics or e-comics, has become big business for creators, fans, publishers and retailers throughout the world. No wonder Amazon recently purchased ComiXology.com because selling and distributing digital comics, is extremely profitable.

Moreover, with promotional digital applications that display the cover art, page count, price, credits, and a short description, individuals can also order traditionally printed comic books from their local brick-and-mortar bookshops. Coupled with this, other marketing efforts like dedicated websites, blogs, forums, review sites, and getting the buzz on social media sites, has increased the overall share of digital comics.

You can read digital comics across multiple devices and in a variety of ways. There is no best way and you have to find out which way suits you the best. Digital comics may be read online or offline.

Reading Online
Online comic stores use some kind of software like Adobe Flash. They prefer this format as the files cannot be downloaded and cannot be read offline. This ensures that the digital comics are not manipulated or pirated.

Reading Offline
For offline reading, they have to be downloaded. Many offer digital comics as downloads having .cbz or .cbr extensions. These files use compression formats like ZIP or RAR, which is indicated by “z” or “r” in their extensions. They are usually low resolution scanned images and do not offer the pleasure that original digital comics offer. They generally use some free comic reader program.

Some distributors offer digital comics as .pdf files that can be viewed with any PDF viewer. The PDF format is secure and tampering is generally not possible. Almost all publisher websites offer free digital comics in .pdf format. They usually offer a single free issue and for more issues, you have to either buy or subscribe to their monthly or yearly programs.

Comic Apps
A large majority of readers use the Comixology app. Other popular apps are from Marvel, DC, Graphic.ly and Longbox. Most of the apps can be downloaded free, however for availing their facilities some apps use per issue, monthly, or yearly fee.

Smart phones using Android devices are also compatible with these apps. Many comic book sites also integrate socialization with these apps, giving the apps a social extension where readers can post comments. These apps are usually compatible over a wide range of devices like desktops, laptops, tablets, iPads, iPhones, etc.

Many devices are text-to-speech enabled, which makes the user comfortably listen to the story and dialogues of the characters. Some creators may even provide speech done by professional voiceover artists; however, generally, it is not so, and so text-to-speech enabled digital comics may not give the desired pleasure that reading gives.

Independent comic book creators may use sites, where the creators can set the price for their digital comics. The creators retain all the income from the sales minus some fees and charges. The site supports itself by using ads and sponsorships.

Digital comics have come to stay and is fast changing the way comics are created, published, distributed, and read.

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Baarhaan Dil Mein Ik Sawaal Aaya


Film: Mr Singh | Mrs. Mehta
Music : Shujaat Husain Khan/Shaarang Dev
Lyrics : Amitabh Verma
Singers : Shreya Ghoshal, KK

Baarhaan Dil Mein Ik Sawaal Aaya
Aaj Socha Toh Yeh Khayaal Aaya
Do Kadam Saath Bas Chale Tum Hum
Hum Safar Toh Na The Kabhi Tum Hum
Baarhaan Dil Mein Ik Sawaal Aaya

Kisane Socha Tha Din Yeh Aayenge
Apane Saaye Bhi Chhut Jaayenge
Main Na Jaanu Mujhe Khushi Hai Ya Ghum
Humsafar Toh Na The Kabhi Tum Hum
Baarhaan Dil Mein Ik Sawaal Aaya

Dil Hai Bezaar Jism Bejaan Hai
Koyi Ehsaas Hi Nahi Baaki
Na Yeh Aankhein Yeh Sochake Huyi Num
Humsafar Toh Na The Kabhi Tum Hum
Baarhaan Dil Mein Ik Sawaal Aaya

Aaj phir teri yaad aayi hai
Paas mere meri tanhaayi hai
Chalo achcha hai tute saare bharam
Humsafar toh na the kabhi tum hum
Baarhaan dil mein ik sawaal aaya

Teri baaton pe muskuraaye aankhein
Teri khushbu se gungunaaye saansein
Mere iss dil ko hai bas ek hi ghum
Humsafar toh na the kabhi tum hum
Baarhaan dil mein ik sawaal aaya

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22 Storytelling Guidelines

Formerly of Pixar, currently freelancing in Los Angeles, Pixar story artist Emma Coats had tweeted a series of “story basics” — guidelines that she learned from her more senior colleagues on how to create appealing stories:

#1: You admire a character for trying more than for their successes.

#2: You gotta keep in mind what’s interesting to you as an audience, not what’s fun to do as a writer. They can be v. different.

#3: Trying for theme is important, but you won’t see what the story is actually about til you’re at the end of it. Now rewrite.

#4: Once upon a time there was ___. Every day, ___. One day ___. Because of that, ___. Because of that, ___. Until finally ___.

#5: Simplify. Focus. Combine characters. Hop over detours. You’ll feel like you’re losing valuable stuff but it sets you free.

#6: What is your character good at, comfortable with? Throw the polar opposite at them. Challenge them. How do they deal?

#7: Come up with your ending before you figure out your middle. Seriously. Endings are hard, get yours working up front.

#8: Finish your story, let go even if it’s not perfect. In an ideal world you have both, but move on. Do better next time.

#9: When you’re stuck, make a list of what WOULDN’T happen next. Lots of times the material to get you unstuck will show up.

#10: Pull apart the stories you like. What you like in them is a part of you; you’ve got to recognize it before you can use it.

#11: Putting it on paper lets you start fixing it. If it stays in your head, a perfect idea, you’ll never share it with anyone.

#12: Discount the 1st thing that comes to mind. And the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th – get the obvious out of the way. Surprise yourself.

#13: Give your characters opinions. Passive/malleable might seem likable to you as you write, but it’s poison to the audience.

#14: Why must you tell THIS story? What’s the belief burning within you that your story feeds off of? That’s the heart of it.

#15: If you were your character, in this situation, how would you feel? Honesty lends credibility to unbelievable situations.

#16: What are the stakes? Give us reason to root for the character. What happens if they don’t succeed? Stack the odds against.

#17: No work is ever wasted. If it’s not working, let go and move on – it’ll come back around to be useful later.

#18: You have to know yourself: the difference between doing your best & fussing. Story is testing, not refining.

#19: Coincidences to get characters into trouble are great; coincidences to get them out of it are cheating.

#20: Exercise: take the building blocks of a movie you dislike. How d’you rearrange them into what you DO like?

#21: You gotta identify with your situation/characters, can’t just write ‘cool’. What would make YOU act that way?

#22: What’s the essence of your story? Most economical telling of it? If you know that, you can build out from there.

Sources:

1. Pixar story rules (one version). http://www.pixartouchbook.com/blog/2011/5/15/pixar-story-rules-one-version.html

2. Emma Coats. https://twitter.com/lawnrocket

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